Category: Kubuntu


This question has not yet appeared in my inbox, although since I have already written an explanation on the meaning of the term “Sniffer” it makes sense to write one about a tool commonly used in conjunction with a “Sniffer”. So here is an explanation on what a “Scanner” is and what it may be used for. Note I am referring to a “Network Scanner” not an optical scanner.

A “Scanner” is a shortened term for “Network Scanner”. The “Network Scanner” is a software program that can be used to passively scan for network broadcasting devices, such as a wireless access point (AP) that could potentially be exploited in order to gain unauthorized access into a system belonging to the network connected to this wireless access point, or perhaps authorized access assuming you have permission from the owner of the network or computer to perform a security audit.

 

By using the term “Passive Scan” I am referring to a scan in what is commonly known to security enthusiasts as a scan in “Monitor Mode”. This means that the wireless device will only capture data packets and broadcast beacons without sending and data packets. Thus making you much less likely to be discovered by the owner of the device or devices that you are collecting data packets from. I would also like to note that in most circumstances collecting wireless packets should be no more illegal than say peering into your neighbour’s lounge room through the front door that he left open. It is in principle no different. Just be sure that if you do choose to pursue the data packets of your surrounding access points that the owner of them is not a security freak or a person with a great lawyer, as this could result in them turning the tables on you and getting you in trouble.

 

Due to the haze between the terms “Sniffer” and “Scanner” personal opinions on each may vary. My preference in network sniffers would be Wireshark and my preference in “Scanner” would be Airodump-ng.

I hope that this has helped you understand the meaning of the term “Scanner” when referring to network security. Have fun testing your network from the outside, perhaps it is not as secure as you may have once thought.

This tutorial is designed to teach all computer users, of which are new to their Linux distribution. Read below to find out what the most commonly compatible wireless devices are and how you are to install them on your Linux-based computer with the aid of open-source driver projects.

The initial step you must take, just as you must in any other hardware installation on any type of computer system, is of course to physically connect the wireless device to your computer system, either via a PCI slot,assuming you are using a desktop or tower type computer system or a free add-on slot, assuming you are using a laptop type computer system. Also after connecting the hardware be sure to check that the system voltage has not dropped overall using your voltmeter, as strenuous load on the power supply may not be all that bad, overloading the power supply will cause hassle when trying to run your computer, most commonly random reboots and hardware failure will result under these circumstances.

 

The next step you must take is to determine the make and model of your wireless device, which can be done by reading the box that contained your wireless device at the time of purchase or you may consult a computer store or a computer savvy friend to determine the make and model of your wireless device. As it is not installed yet, thus checking for the make and model in the device list is futile.

 

Please note that this tutorial is referring to the “Chipset” in use on the wireless device, so not only the make and model of the card are being referred to here, but also more specifically the “Chipset”on board that device.

 

Below is a table of the commonly compatible wireless devices and where you are to find online hardware lists and driver installation packages for them. You may also note that below I have only listed the makes of the commonly compatible wireless devices, as listing all compatible models would take vast amounts of time, although don’t fret as the driver installation packages available online are usually compatible across most models of the same make:

 

Make Hardware List (Compatibility List) Driver Package
Atheros http://madwifi.org/wiki/Compatibility http://madwifi.org/wiki/UserDocs/GettingMadwifi
Ralink http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

Zydas (USB) http://zydas.rapla.net http://zd1211.ath.cx
Intel I have not found a hardware list for this specific make yet. http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net/downloads.php
http://sourceforge.net/projects/ipw2200-ap (For use in AP mode)
Conexant

http://securitystartshere.org/page-training-oswa-wnicsprism54.htm

http://prism54.org/newdrivers.html (SoftMAC)
http://prism54.org/fullmac.html (FullMAC)

 

Once you have determined the make, model and chipset aboard your wireless device, you must then visit the “Hardware List (Compatibility List) link beside the make of your wireless device, once you have navigated to the webpage, you must then search the page for your specific model, which can be done by using the “Filter”/”Find” tool, which is activated by using the key combination highlighted below:

Ctrl + F            Press and hold “Ctrl” and then tap “F” now release both keys.

 

Once you have used the above key combination correctly you will be presented with a narrow, empty text box, of which you must type the model of your card into (or at least the first few characters) and then hit the “Enter”/”Return” key to search the page for the entered text.

 

If the box suddenly highlights itself “Red” then your model is most likely not on the page, if this happened check that you entered the model name correctly and try again, if the box remains “Red” then try removing one character from the end of the text at a time until the box is no longer “Red”. If your box remains the default colour then you will notice that the text you entered into the box will now be highlighted (more than likely in a pale yellow) and if the highlighted text on the webpage matches the model of your wireless device then you can be sure that your wireless device should be compatible with Linux, thus allowing your wireless device to function natively under the Linux platform.

 

Now that you have determined that your wireless device is compatible with Linux, you must then return to the top of this page and click the link beside the make of your wireless device in the “Driver Package” column. Once you have clicked the link in the column that is most appropriate to you, you must then select the driver package that is most suited to your system. In most cases, you will select the driver marked with your Linux Kernel version number of the type of processor and operating system you are running (i.e. 32-bit, 64-bit, x86, etc).

 

Once you have downloaded the driver package (which will be a file format specific to your distribution i.e. Debian = .deb or .tar or .tar.gz, etc) most appropriate to your system and wireless device, you must then install it. Depending on your distribution and wireless device this procedure will vary and I strongly recommend that you consult a computer savvy friend, a computer expert or good old http://www.google.com for any information that you may need.

 

Once you have installed the driver package, you must then reboot your system and if you have an external wireless device switch (common on factory installed wireless devices) then switch it on. Now if you have configured it correctly by using my instructions above, then you may sit back and watch the glory reveal itself in the form of blinking data transfer lights and the swift readiness to occupy our air with its wealth of bits and bytes and make all of the fidelity of the wireless variety come to life invisibly. Fascinating isn’t it? If you do not experience such pleasure and your wireless device is in fact inactive or only partially active then I would personally recommend that you continue to search this website of mine for the answer that suits you, otherwise you may consult a computer expert.

Congratulations! You have just installed your wireless device on your Linux-based computer system. Enjoy your newfound Linux hardware configuration knowledge.

This tutorial is aimed at all regular users of Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu who commonly log in to a non-root account and perform administrative tasks via the “Terminal” (command prompt). Read below to find out how you can perform administrative tasks from a “Terminal” (command prompt) running on a regular account.

The first thing I must make you aware of before you proceed with this tutorial is that you must know the password of an administrative user on the computer you are logging into as a regular user in order for this method to work.

 

Okay, now we may proceed with the tutorial. The first step is of course to open the “Terminal”, which can be done by using the “Alt + F2” key combination as highlighted below:

Press and hold the “Alt” key and then press the “F2” key, now release both keys

 

Once you have performed the key combination as highlighted above, you will be presented with a small rectangular window at the top centre of your screen. This small window is the command launcher. In this window you will have a small text box, of which you must enter the text highlighted below into and then hit the “Enter” key:

terminal

 

Once you have entered the text above into the text box and hit the “Enter” key, your “Terminal” (command prompt) will appear.

 

Now that your “Terminal” is open you can perform your administrative tasks. But first you must decide which administrative task you wish to commit. In this example I will be moving a text file from my personal documents to the root of my HDD, which will require administrative privileges by default. This can be done by using the command you would normally use to move a file from your documents to the root of your HDD, although you will add the command “sudo” at the beginning like so:

sudo mv /home/dillon/Desktop/Documents/thisismyfile.txt /

 

By entering the command above into your “Terminal” window and then hitting the “Enter” key, you will be asked for the administrator password. You must type the password and then hit the “Enter” key, please note: the password will be invisible as you are typing it, for security reasons.

 

Now that you have entered the command with the “sudo” at the start and then entered your password, the “sudo” command will search a special file on your HDD in order to verify whether or not the particular user you entered the password for as well as your current user login is authorized to run the command of which you have entered. This file is the “sudoers” file, which is located at the directory highlighted below:

/etc/sudoers

 

You will notice that after using the “sudo” command, you will be able to run select applications as administrator for a certain amount of time. This is due to the “sudo” command, which will generate a special file that will allow you to use select commands for a set period of time. This file is, in a way a “ticket”, which allows you to enter the administrative functions of select features as often as you want until your “ticket” expires.

 

You may insert the “sudo” before and command you would like to run that requires administrative privileges wherever you see fit. The “sudo” command will work on any command that requires an administrator to run it, so next time you are stuck without an administrative login don’t fret because help is one word away.

 

Note: This tutorial will work on the Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu platform.

Congratulations! You have just used “sudo” to emulate admin on your system. Enjoy your newfound Linux administration knowledge.

This tutorial is designed to show all of you Ubuntu and Kubuntu users out there how to end the bland cycle of waiting for a non responsive program to close or for that big “X” to respond to your click. Read below to find out how you can kill a program in a few easy steps and teach your computer who is boss.

The first step you must take is to find the “Process ID” or ”PID” for the process of which you wish to kill. The short 20 second tutorial for how to find the “Process ID” in Ubuntu and Kubuntu via cmd is linked below:

https://chafflube.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/how-to-get-a-quick-list-of-processes-via-cmd-in-ubuntu/

 

Now if you already know how to find the “PID” or have followed my tutorial linked above on how to find the “PID” then you may proceed to the next step, which is to type the text below directly into a “Terminal” window and then hit the “Enter” key (which should now be opened assuming you have just found the “PID” via the cmd):

kill xxxx                                         <— The “xxxx” I have typed must be replaced by the PID

 

As the highlighted text above shows, you must type the text “kill” follows by a single space and then the “PID” you have found for the process of which you wish to close.

 

For example, say I wished to closed the open program “Gedit” which has a “PID” of “6172”. I would type the text below and then hit the “Enter” key:

kill 6172

 

Note: If you are attempting to close a process being ran by another user, a select system process or any program that would otherwise require root permission to kill then you can try forcing a kill by using the “-9” addition on the “Kill” command like so:

kill -9 6172

 

Now that you have used the “Kill” or “Kill -9”  commands successfully and your program has closed or you have been presented with a message telling you that you do not have sufficient rights to perform the action, you might be wondering what the whole “-9” addition to the “Kill” command is right? Well that’s simple, the “-9” is telling the “Kill” command to send a special kill signal, which is known as the “SIGKILL” signal. The “SIGKILL” signal can be used as a fallback in the event that a regular “Kill” command does not work.

Congratulations! You have just killed a process via cmd in Ubuntu or Kubuntu. Enjoy your newfound Linux system administration knowledge.

This tutorial will explain to any new or experienced user of the Ubuntu/Kubuntu operating system how they can open their command prompt and quickly have a list of currently running processes in one simple command. Read below to find out how you can optimize your productivity and system control as a Ubuntu/Kubuntu system administrator in just a few seconds.

The first step is of course to open your command prompt, which can be done by using the command launcher. The command launcher must be opened by using the “Alt + F2” key combination like so:

Press and hold the “Alt” key and then press the “F2” key once and now release the “Alt” key

 

Once you have performed the key combination highlighted above the command launcher should appear at the top center of your screen. It will appear as a small box with a text box to enter your command into. In this box you must type the text highlighted below and then hit the “Enter” key:

terminal

 

Once you type the text highlighted above into the command launcher and hit the “Enter” key, you will be presented with the “Terminal” window. This window may have a different name depending on whether you are running Ubuntu or Kubuntu so do not fear, if it is a black box with a blinking cursor then you are at your “Terminal”.

 

Inside this “Terminal” is where the magic happens. By which I mean you are about to see all of your running processes, their “Process ID” (or PID in shorter terms) and also which user is running that particular process as well as a few others depending on your account privileges.

 

In order to create and view the list of currently running processes you must type the text highlighted below into the “Terminal” and then hit the “Enter” key:

ps

 

The information will be in a format similar to below:

6183 pts/0    00:00:00 bash

 

The highlighted text above is an example of the “Bash” process running on my computer, which is the “Terminal” in this case. The “6183” will be the “Process ID”/”PID” of the “Bash”/”Terminal” process.

 

The “ps” command can also be used in order to find the “PID” of a process that you wish to end. This is very convenient when it comes to quitting a program that is not responding and slowing down your system. The tutorial on how to kill processes via the cmd in Ubuntu and Kubuntu is linked below:

https://chafflube.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/how-to-kill-processes-via-the-cmd-in-ubuntu-and-kubuntu/

Congratulations! You have just created a personalized list of all the processes currently running on your computer. Enjoy your newfound Linux system administration knowledge.

This guide is for all Kubuntu users who hate the default browser “Konqueror” and would much prefer the “Mozilla Firefox” web browser to be set as default on their system. This is rather easy to do. Read below to find out how you can change your default web browser in Kubuntu to “Mozilla Firefox” in just seconds.

The first thing you must do is click the “start” button on the Kubuntu taskbar (which should be at the bottom of your screen, unless you have moved it) and then open “Terminal”, which can be done by typing “Terminal” into the text bar at in the “start” menu on the Kubuntu taskbar and then hitting the “Enter” key.

 

Once you have opened the “Terminal” window you must open the “KDEControl Center”, which can be done by entering the following text into the “Terminal” window and then hitting the “Enter” key:

kcontrol

 

Once you have entered the above text into the “Terminal” window and hit the “Enter” key, the “KDEControl Centre” will open. In this window you must click “KDE Components”, then click “Default Applications”.

 

Now that you are in the “Default Applications” window, you must click the circle button (radio button) next to the text “In the following browser:”, then you must either type in the shortcut to the “Mozilla Firefox” executable file on your hard-drive or click the “…” button located to the right of the shortcut entry text box, clicking the “…” button will allow you to browse through your hard-drive and then select directly, the “Mozilla Firefox” executable file.

 

Once you have found and selected the “Mozilla Firefox” executable file and set it as the default browser next to the “In the following browser:” text, you may close the “Default Applications” window.

 

Now that you have closed the “Default Applications” window, you may restart your computer, which can be done by clicking the “start” button on the Kubuntu taskbar and then selecting “Leave” and then “Shutdown”, then clicking the “Shut Down” button.

Now you know how you can set your default web browser in Kubuntu to literally any web browser that is compatible with Kubuntu and installed on your computer. Enjoy your newfound Kubuntu web browser knowledge.

This particular guide is directed at any Kubuntu user who finds that their Kubuntu interface has stopped working and would like to restart the KDE interface without resetting their computer by powering it off. Read below to find out how you can restart your KDE interface at any time without the added irritation of having to power off.

Restarting the KDE interface in Kubuntu is as easy as two simple steps.

 

Firstly you will need to go to your desktop and hit the following key combination using your keyboard:

ctrl + alt + del

 

If you are a current or ex-Microsoft Windows user then you will probably have noticed that the above key combination, used in Windows will provide you with the task manager or the logout screen.

 

In the case that you are using Kubuntu, which you will be if you are reading this guide, this key combination, entered at the desktop will provide you with a popup dialogue box which will give you the following options to choose from:

  • Logout
  • Turn Off Computer
  • Restart

 

You will need to click the “Logout” option. Clicking the “Logout” button will bring you to the KDE login screen. From this screen you will need to perform the following key combination:

ctrl + alt + backspace

 

Once you this, Kubuntu will reload itself and then allow you to log in again. This will refresh your desktop and terminate all unresponsive programs, allowing you to fully enjoy your KDE desktop, without the irritating unresponsive program(s).

Be sure to use this guide whenever your KDE desktop decides to lock or freeze on you. Enjoy your newfound Kubuntu knowledge.

This guide is aimed at any Kubuntu user who wishes to be able to hit the power button on the computer and come back to find their computer logged in, without the irritating login screen nagging you to enter your password. This is not recommended for any high traffic areas such as a school, office or library as it could run a very high risk of somebody viewing, deleting or stealing your valuable files. Read below to find out how to enable automatic logins on your Kubuntu computer.

The very first thing you are going to have to do to ensure that this guide is of 100% use to you is be sure that you are running Kubuntu, this guide does not apply to Ubuntu.

 

Next you will need to click the “start” button in the taskbar (usually found at the bottom left of the screen with a “K” inside a blue box). Clicking the “start” bar will open the programs menu, from here you can click “System Settings”. This opens the “System Settings” window, allowing you to change your computer’s settings.

 

Next you will need to scroll to the bottom of the windows and open the “Login Manager” icon. This will open the windows that you can use to manage nearly everything related to the login system of your Kubuntu computer.

 

Once you have accessed the “Login Manager” screen you then need to enter your password to gain full access to the window.

 

Now select the “Convenience” tab located at the top of the “Login Manager” window and then select the user to “Autologin” using the appropriate drop-down box. Once you have selected the appropriate text from the drop-down box you then need to set a time delay most appropriate to your needs.

 

Now click “Apply” and close the window. From now on (or until you change the setting back by reversing this guide) you will only need to power on your computer and it will load the operating system and present you with your Kubuntu desktop. This is especially useful when you are in a hurry to get to work and need to check your e-mails but are busy making breakfast or on the phone to a workmate.

 

Be sure to utilize this guide as well as possible. Enjoy your newfound Kubuntu knowledge.

This guide focuses on easing a new or even an experienced Kubuntu user into making an educated choice when installing software. The “apt-get” command in the Terminal of Kubuntu is a great timesaver and is an everyday feature to myself and surely many other Linux users around the world. Read below to find out how easy it is for you to diminish your program installation times at the same time as keeping the installation virtually completely unattended.

The first thing you will need to do is open your “start” button in the taskbar. Once you have opened this you will need to type directly into the terminal window the following:

sudo –i

This command will allows you to login to the terminal as root. Thus ultimately allowing you to take complete control of the software on the system without losing your current login session.

 

You will be prompted with a line of text asking you to type your login password. Type in the password for the account that you are currently logged into. Note: The text does not appear on the screen for security reasons. Once you have typed in your password hit the “Enter” key.

 

You will now be prompted with a “root” command line. From here you can install your apt-get software by running the appropriate command. Which should be something similar to this:

sudo apt-get install <your software name>    and then hit “Enter”

 

To find the apt-get command for the piece of software or suite of software that you want can be found by typing into Google’s search engine the following:

sudo apt-get for <your software name>

(replacing <your software name> with the apt-get code for your software.

 

For example, say you would like a game suite to play at home or at work on your Kubuntu computer. Difficult? Not at all. It is as simple as typing in the apt-get code written below:

sudo apt-get install kdegames

 

Once you have typed the above command and hit the “Enter” key you will be prompted with a “y/n” prompt. Hit “n” and “Enter” and then watch the magic happen.

 

Allow the terminal to continue spitting out data and code until it stops and presents you once again with the “root” prompt. You will now notice that in this one games suite alone you will have the following games stored categorically in your “start” bar:

 

Arcade

  • KBlocks – A Tetris clone

  • KBounce – A JezzBall clone for KDE

  • KBreakout – A Breakout type game

  • KGoldRunner – Run around an area collecting gold then run to the next level. (a clone of Lode Runner)

  • KLines – A clone of Lines

  • Kolf – A Miniature golf simulation

  • Kollision – A game of dexterity

  • KSameGame – A wall of balls that need to be deleted

  • KSnake – A KDE clone of Rattler Race (a variation of Snake).

  • KSpaceDuel – A variation on the Spacewar! game

  • KTron – A rudimentary Tron Light cycle racing game.

Board

  • Bovo – A Gomoku game

  • KBattleship – Battleship for KDE.

  • KMahjongg – Mahjong solitaire

  • Shisen-Sho – A Mahjong-like game

  • KReversi – A Reversi game

  • KFourInLine – A Connect Four game. Used to be called KWin4

Card

  • KPat – A card game with solitaire games Klondike, Spider, FreeCell and other card games included.

  • Lt. Skat – A card game for KDE, based on the German Offiziersskat game.

Dice

  • KJumpingCube – A board game where players make boxes change color and try to succeed in taking over the board.

  • Kiriki – A Yahtzee game

Logic

  • KAtomic – A clone of the early 1990s commercial game Atomix.

  • KBlackBox – Black-box logic game. Shoot rays into a black box to find some balls.

  • KDiamond – A Bejeweled type game

  • KMines – A Minesweeper implementation for KDE.

  • KNetwalk – A puzzle game. The player must arrange sections of wire to connect the computers.

  • KSquares – A Dots and Boxes game

  • KSudoku – A Sudoku game

  • Kubrick – A Rubik’s Cube game

Strategy

  • Konquest – A simple turn-based strategy game with the theme of galactic conquest.

  • KsirK – A Risk clone

Toy

  • KTuberling – A Potato Guy game for kids. (Modeled after the Mr. Potato Head children’s toy)

 

Now, that is a fairly decent amount of games for a few commands and less than 2 minutes of your time isn’t it?

 

There are many, many more games and software available in this way. Refer to my guide on how to install a suite of games intended for the GNOME desktop environment used on Ubuntu systems linked below:

https://chafflube.wordpress.com/2010/09/30/how-to-install-gnomegames-using-apt-get-in-kubuntu/

 

Have fun experimenting with your new game suite. Enjoy your newfound Kubuntu knowledge.

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