Category: Ubuntu


This question has not yet appeared in my inbox, although since I have already written an explanation on the meaning of the term “Sniffer” it makes sense to write one about a tool commonly used in conjunction with a “Sniffer”. So here is an explanation on what a “Scanner” is and what it may be used for. Note I am referring to a “Network Scanner” not an optical scanner.

A “Scanner” is a shortened term for “Network Scanner”. The “Network Scanner” is a software program that can be used to passively scan for network broadcasting devices, such as a wireless access point (AP) that could potentially be exploited in order to gain unauthorized access into a system belonging to the network connected to this wireless access point, or perhaps authorized access assuming you have permission from the owner of the network or computer to perform a security audit.

 

By using the term “Passive Scan” I am referring to a scan in what is commonly known to security enthusiasts as a scan in “Monitor Mode”. This means that the wireless device will only capture data packets and broadcast beacons without sending and data packets. Thus making you much less likely to be discovered by the owner of the device or devices that you are collecting data packets from. I would also like to note that in most circumstances collecting wireless packets should be no more illegal than say peering into your neighbour’s lounge room through the front door that he left open. It is in principle no different. Just be sure that if you do choose to pursue the data packets of your surrounding access points that the owner of them is not a security freak or a person with a great lawyer, as this could result in them turning the tables on you and getting you in trouble.

 

Due to the haze between the terms “Sniffer” and “Scanner” personal opinions on each may vary. My preference in network sniffers would be Wireshark and my preference in “Scanner” would be Airodump-ng.

I hope that this has helped you understand the meaning of the term “Scanner” when referring to network security. Have fun testing your network from the outside, perhaps it is not as secure as you may have once thought.

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This tutorial is designed to teach all computer users, of which are new to their Linux distribution. Read below to find out what the most commonly compatible wireless devices are and how you are to install them on your Linux-based computer with the aid of open-source driver projects.

The initial step you must take, just as you must in any other hardware installation on any type of computer system, is of course to physically connect the wireless device to your computer system, either via a PCI slot,assuming you are using a desktop or tower type computer system or a free add-on slot, assuming you are using a laptop type computer system. Also after connecting the hardware be sure to check that the system voltage has not dropped overall using your voltmeter, as strenuous load on the power supply may not be all that bad, overloading the power supply will cause hassle when trying to run your computer, most commonly random reboots and hardware failure will result under these circumstances.

 

The next step you must take is to determine the make and model of your wireless device, which can be done by reading the box that contained your wireless device at the time of purchase or you may consult a computer store or a computer savvy friend to determine the make and model of your wireless device. As it is not installed yet, thus checking for the make and model in the device list is futile.

 

Please note that this tutorial is referring to the “Chipset” in use on the wireless device, so not only the make and model of the card are being referred to here, but also more specifically the “Chipset”on board that device.

 

Below is a table of the commonly compatible wireless devices and where you are to find online hardware lists and driver installation packages for them. You may also note that below I have only listed the makes of the commonly compatible wireless devices, as listing all compatible models would take vast amounts of time, although don’t fret as the driver installation packages available online are usually compatible across most models of the same make:

 

Make Hardware List (Compatibility List) Driver Package
Atheros http://madwifi.org/wiki/Compatibility http://madwifi.org/wiki/UserDocs/GettingMadwifi
Ralink http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

Zydas (USB) http://zydas.rapla.net http://zd1211.ath.cx
Intel I have not found a hardware list for this specific make yet. http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net/downloads.php
http://sourceforge.net/projects/ipw2200-ap (For use in AP mode)
Conexant

http://securitystartshere.org/page-training-oswa-wnicsprism54.htm

http://prism54.org/newdrivers.html (SoftMAC)
http://prism54.org/fullmac.html (FullMAC)

 

Once you have determined the make, model and chipset aboard your wireless device, you must then visit the “Hardware List (Compatibility List) link beside the make of your wireless device, once you have navigated to the webpage, you must then search the page for your specific model, which can be done by using the “Filter”/”Find” tool, which is activated by using the key combination highlighted below:

Ctrl + F            Press and hold “Ctrl” and then tap “F” now release both keys.

 

Once you have used the above key combination correctly you will be presented with a narrow, empty text box, of which you must type the model of your card into (or at least the first few characters) and then hit the “Enter”/”Return” key to search the page for the entered text.

 

If the box suddenly highlights itself “Red” then your model is most likely not on the page, if this happened check that you entered the model name correctly and try again, if the box remains “Red” then try removing one character from the end of the text at a time until the box is no longer “Red”. If your box remains the default colour then you will notice that the text you entered into the box will now be highlighted (more than likely in a pale yellow) and if the highlighted text on the webpage matches the model of your wireless device then you can be sure that your wireless device should be compatible with Linux, thus allowing your wireless device to function natively under the Linux platform.

 

Now that you have determined that your wireless device is compatible with Linux, you must then return to the top of this page and click the link beside the make of your wireless device in the “Driver Package” column. Once you have clicked the link in the column that is most appropriate to you, you must then select the driver package that is most suited to your system. In most cases, you will select the driver marked with your Linux Kernel version number of the type of processor and operating system you are running (i.e. 32-bit, 64-bit, x86, etc).

 

Once you have downloaded the driver package (which will be a file format specific to your distribution i.e. Debian = .deb or .tar or .tar.gz, etc) most appropriate to your system and wireless device, you must then install it. Depending on your distribution and wireless device this procedure will vary and I strongly recommend that you consult a computer savvy friend, a computer expert or good old http://www.google.com for any information that you may need.

 

Once you have installed the driver package, you must then reboot your system and if you have an external wireless device switch (common on factory installed wireless devices) then switch it on. Now if you have configured it correctly by using my instructions above, then you may sit back and watch the glory reveal itself in the form of blinking data transfer lights and the swift readiness to occupy our air with its wealth of bits and bytes and make all of the fidelity of the wireless variety come to life invisibly. Fascinating isn’t it? If you do not experience such pleasure and your wireless device is in fact inactive or only partially active then I would personally recommend that you continue to search this website of mine for the answer that suits you, otherwise you may consult a computer expert.

Congratulations! You have just installed your wireless device on your Linux-based computer system. Enjoy your newfound Linux hardware configuration knowledge.

This tutorial is aimed at all regular users of Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu who commonly log in to a non-root account and perform administrative tasks via the “Terminal” (command prompt). Read below to find out how you can perform administrative tasks from a “Terminal” (command prompt) running on a regular account.

The first thing I must make you aware of before you proceed with this tutorial is that you must know the password of an administrative user on the computer you are logging into as a regular user in order for this method to work.

 

Okay, now we may proceed with the tutorial. The first step is of course to open the “Terminal”, which can be done by using the “Alt + F2” key combination as highlighted below:

Press and hold the “Alt” key and then press the “F2” key, now release both keys

 

Once you have performed the key combination as highlighted above, you will be presented with a small rectangular window at the top centre of your screen. This small window is the command launcher. In this window you will have a small text box, of which you must enter the text highlighted below into and then hit the “Enter” key:

terminal

 

Once you have entered the text above into the text box and hit the “Enter” key, your “Terminal” (command prompt) will appear.

 

Now that your “Terminal” is open you can perform your administrative tasks. But first you must decide which administrative task you wish to commit. In this example I will be moving a text file from my personal documents to the root of my HDD, which will require administrative privileges by default. This can be done by using the command you would normally use to move a file from your documents to the root of your HDD, although you will add the command “sudo” at the beginning like so:

sudo mv /home/dillon/Desktop/Documents/thisismyfile.txt /

 

By entering the command above into your “Terminal” window and then hitting the “Enter” key, you will be asked for the administrator password. You must type the password and then hit the “Enter” key, please note: the password will be invisible as you are typing it, for security reasons.

 

Now that you have entered the command with the “sudo” at the start and then entered your password, the “sudo” command will search a special file on your HDD in order to verify whether or not the particular user you entered the password for as well as your current user login is authorized to run the command of which you have entered. This file is the “sudoers” file, which is located at the directory highlighted below:

/etc/sudoers

 

You will notice that after using the “sudo” command, you will be able to run select applications as administrator for a certain amount of time. This is due to the “sudo” command, which will generate a special file that will allow you to use select commands for a set period of time. This file is, in a way a “ticket”, which allows you to enter the administrative functions of select features as often as you want until your “ticket” expires.

 

You may insert the “sudo” before and command you would like to run that requires administrative privileges wherever you see fit. The “sudo” command will work on any command that requires an administrator to run it, so next time you are stuck without an administrative login don’t fret because help is one word away.

 

Note: This tutorial will work on the Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu platform.

Congratulations! You have just used “sudo” to emulate admin on your system. Enjoy your newfound Linux administration knowledge.

This tutorial is designed to show all of you Ubuntu and Kubuntu users out there how to end the bland cycle of waiting for a non responsive program to close or for that big “X” to respond to your click. Read below to find out how you can kill a program in a few easy steps and teach your computer who is boss.

The first step you must take is to find the “Process ID” or ”PID” for the process of which you wish to kill. The short 20 second tutorial for how to find the “Process ID” in Ubuntu and Kubuntu via cmd is linked below:

https://chafflube.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/how-to-get-a-quick-list-of-processes-via-cmd-in-ubuntu/

 

Now if you already know how to find the “PID” or have followed my tutorial linked above on how to find the “PID” then you may proceed to the next step, which is to type the text below directly into a “Terminal” window and then hit the “Enter” key (which should now be opened assuming you have just found the “PID” via the cmd):

kill xxxx                                         <— The “xxxx” I have typed must be replaced by the PID

 

As the highlighted text above shows, you must type the text “kill” follows by a single space and then the “PID” you have found for the process of which you wish to close.

 

For example, say I wished to closed the open program “Gedit” which has a “PID” of “6172”. I would type the text below and then hit the “Enter” key:

kill 6172

 

Note: If you are attempting to close a process being ran by another user, a select system process or any program that would otherwise require root permission to kill then you can try forcing a kill by using the “-9” addition on the “Kill” command like so:

kill -9 6172

 

Now that you have used the “Kill” or “Kill -9”  commands successfully and your program has closed or you have been presented with a message telling you that you do not have sufficient rights to perform the action, you might be wondering what the whole “-9” addition to the “Kill” command is right? Well that’s simple, the “-9” is telling the “Kill” command to send a special kill signal, which is known as the “SIGKILL” signal. The “SIGKILL” signal can be used as a fallback in the event that a regular “Kill” command does not work.

Congratulations! You have just killed a process via cmd in Ubuntu or Kubuntu. Enjoy your newfound Linux system administration knowledge.

This tutorial will explain to any new or experienced user of the Ubuntu/Kubuntu operating system how they can open their command prompt and quickly have a list of currently running processes in one simple command. Read below to find out how you can optimize your productivity and system control as a Ubuntu/Kubuntu system administrator in just a few seconds.

The first step is of course to open your command prompt, which can be done by using the command launcher. The command launcher must be opened by using the “Alt + F2” key combination like so:

Press and hold the “Alt” key and then press the “F2” key once and now release the “Alt” key

 

Once you have performed the key combination highlighted above the command launcher should appear at the top center of your screen. It will appear as a small box with a text box to enter your command into. In this box you must type the text highlighted below and then hit the “Enter” key:

terminal

 

Once you type the text highlighted above into the command launcher and hit the “Enter” key, you will be presented with the “Terminal” window. This window may have a different name depending on whether you are running Ubuntu or Kubuntu so do not fear, if it is a black box with a blinking cursor then you are at your “Terminal”.

 

Inside this “Terminal” is where the magic happens. By which I mean you are about to see all of your running processes, their “Process ID” (or PID in shorter terms) and also which user is running that particular process as well as a few others depending on your account privileges.

 

In order to create and view the list of currently running processes you must type the text highlighted below into the “Terminal” and then hit the “Enter” key:

ps

 

The information will be in a format similar to below:

6183 pts/0    00:00:00 bash

 

The highlighted text above is an example of the “Bash” process running on my computer, which is the “Terminal” in this case. The “6183” will be the “Process ID”/”PID” of the “Bash”/”Terminal” process.

 

The “ps” command can also be used in order to find the “PID” of a process that you wish to end. This is very convenient when it comes to quitting a program that is not responding and slowing down your system. The tutorial on how to kill processes via the cmd in Ubuntu and Kubuntu is linked below:

https://chafflube.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/how-to-kill-processes-via-the-cmd-in-ubuntu-and-kubuntu/

Congratulations! You have just created a personalized list of all the processes currently running on your computer. Enjoy your newfound Linux system administration knowledge.

This tutorial is for all ex Windows and ex Mac users who have recently migrated to the Ubuntu platform and are missing their good old Adobe Photoshop. Read below to find out how you can install and run Adobe Photoshop under Ubuntu.

The first step is to open your “Terminal” (command prompt), which can be done by clicking the “start” button on your taskbar and then clicking “Applications” then clicking “Accessories” then clicking “Terminal”. Once you have opened the “Terminal” (command prompt” window, you may then enter the command below in order to install “Wine” (a Windows emulator for Linux) and then hit “Enter”:

wget http://www.kegel.com/wine/winetricks

 

Once you have entered the above command into “Terminal” (command prompt) and then hit the “Enter” key, which will bring up some text, some of which should ask you for your current user password. You must enter the password for the “Root” account or the password that you use to log in to your account (note: the password will not appear on screen as you type it). Once you have typed the password, you must hit “Enter”. The “Wine” software will begin automatically installing via your “Terminal” (command prompt). You will be able to tell that this installation is finished when your command prompt once again returns the “User@computername: $ _” prompt, of which you are able to enter another command with.

 

Now that your installation of “Wine” is complete you must enter the code below and then hit “Enter”:

sh winetricks msxm16 gdiplus gecko vcrun2005

 

Now that you have entered the above command and hit “Enter”, you must install some of the basic Windows fonts onto your Ubuntu computer in order for “Adobe Photoshop” to function correctly, which can be done by entering the code below and then hitting the “Enter” key:

sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts

 

After entering the highlighted text above and then hitting “Enter”, your fonts will now download and install. Once this installation has completed and you are given once again a flashing cursor, awaiting your input, you may close the “Terminal” (command prompt) window, which can be done by clicking the “X” button on the “Terminal” (command prompt) window.

 

Now that the basics have been taken care of, it is time to install “Adobe Photoshop” within the “Wine” emulator. To do so you must first follow two download links in order to download two .dll files. These files are “atmlib.dll” and “msvcr80.dll”. To download these .dll files you must follow the links below:

 

To download “atmlib.dll”:

http://www.dlldump.com/cgi-bin/testwrap/downloadcounts.cgi?rt=count&path=dllfiles/A/atmlib.dll

 

To download “msvcr80.dll”:

http://www.dll-files.com/msvcr80.zip?0VKlRFWJkU

You must extract this file using “WinRAR” or “WinZip”.

 

Once you have downloaded the files above and saved them to “Documents”, “Downloads” or another convenient location, you must then click the “start” button on the taskbar then click “Applications” then click “Wine”, doing so will open the “Wine” emulator. If this is confusing to you then follow the highlighted instructions below:

Click “start” –> Click “Applications” –> Click “Wine”.

 

You must now drop these files into your “Virtual C Drive”, which should be located in the directory below:

/home/(type your username here)/.wine

 

Within the “.wine” folder you must navigate to the directory below and copy the two .dll files into the directory:

C:\Windows\System32

 

Now that you have navigated to the directory highlighted above, you must copy the “atmlib.dll” file into the “System32” folder and you must also extract the “msvcr80.dll” to a separate folder and then copy the “msvcr80.dll” file directly into the “System32” folder (in the same folder as the “atmlib.dll” file).

 

Once you have copied these two .dll files into the “C:\Windows\System32” directory, you must then run the “Adobe Photoshop” .exe installer file, just as you would on a computer running Windows. Now you must follow the installation instructions exactly as you would on a Windows machine.

 

When you are prompted to choose an installation directory for “Adobe Photoshop” (if it is not already chosen for you) then it is recommended that you choose the directory highlighted below for convenience sake:

C:\Program Files\Photoshop

 

Once the installation is complete, assuming you have checked the “Run Photoshop” box, when you click “Finish” your “Adobe Photoshop” program should open, providing you with a fully functional “Adobe Photoshop” installation.

 

“Adobe Photoshop” can now be ran at any time by clicking the “start” button on your taskbar and then clicking “Applications” then clicking “Wine” then navigating through the “Wine” menu to the directory that you installed “Adobe Photoshop” into and open the .exe file.

Congratulations! You now have a fully functional “Adobe Photoshop” installation on you Ubuntu computer system. Enjoy your newfound Ubuntu program installation knowledge.

This tutorial is designed to be used by all people interested in graphic design and image manipulation under the Ubuntu environment. Read below to find out how you can install GIMP on Ubuntu and begin manipulating images in just minutes.

The first step you must take in order to get your GIMP installation up and running is to open your “Terminal” (command prompt), which can be done by navigating to your desktop then hitting “Alt” + “F2” and then entering into the popup dialogue that you are presented with the text below and then hitting the “Enter” key or click “Run”:

gnome-terminal

 

If you do not understand the instruction above to open the “Terminal” (command prompt) then you may follow the highlighted explanation below:

Minimize all windows to get to your desktop –> Hold “Alt” and hit “F2” –> Type in the popup window the text “gnome-terminal” –> Hit the “Enter” key or click “Run”.

 

Now that you have opened the “Terminal” (command prompt) window, you may enter the code below and then hit “Enter” in order to begin the automated installation of your "The GIMP” software:

sudo apt-get install gimp

 

By using the code above you will be downloading and installing the latest version of “The GIMP”. Once you have entered the code above, you may be prompted with a “y/n” prompt, of which you must reply to by typing “y” and then hitting the “Enter” key.

 

Now that your “The GIMP” software is installed, you must open it, which can be done by clicking the “start” button on your taskbar and then clicking “Applications” and then clicking “Graphics” and then clicking “The GIMP”. If you do not understand these instructions then refer to the highlighted instructions below:

Click the “start” button –> Click “Applications” –> Click “Graphics” –> Click “The GIMP”

 

Now that you have opened “The GIMP” for the first time, you will be presented with a setup window. This window will ask you about where you would like its directory to be placed and which additional settings you would like to enable. I recommend that you leave the default settings as is and note where the directory is before you proceed. If you are an advanced user then feel free to modify these settings as much as you see fit. Now you must navigate throughout the rest of the setup, choosing the options that are most appropriate to you.

 

As soon as you have finished the setup process, the setup window will close and your toolbars and buttons will appear within the The GIMP’s interface.

 

You may now begin using your image manipulation software. The “The GIMP” software contains many different buttons, tools and options and is open to a vast array of customization options for the software itself as well as your images. The “The GIMP” software can export over 30 different type of image files, depending on the version you have installed on your system this may be less or more. Nonetheless, this is a great software and considering that it is free, a much better choice over Adobe Photoshop, especially now that Ubuntu is coming up fast in the eyes of graphic designers in terms of features and reliability.

Congratulations! You have just installed one of the World’s most famous image manipulation programs. Enjoy your newfound Ubuntu image manipulation knowledge.

This tutorial is written keeping in mind all of you Ubuntu users our there who are still plagued as to how they are to change their date and time settings. However, there is no need to worry as this is tutorial to show you how you can change the time and date in your “Terminal” (command prompt). Read below to find out how you can change your date and time settings in Ubuntu using the command prompt in just seconds.

The first step is of course to open the “Terminal” (command prompt). This can be done by minimizing or closing all open windows and then hit “Alt” + “F2”, which will open the “Run Application” window. From this window you must type into the available text box the text below and then click “Run”

gnome-terminal

 

Once you have entered the text above and then clicked the “Run” button in the bottom right of the “Run Application” window, your “Terminal” (command prompt) window will open. This window by default will be black with white text upon it. In this window you must type the text below and then hit “Enter” on your keyboard.

date

 

Once you have entered the text above and then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard, you will be presented with the current date and time in text, which will be in the format shown below:

Tue Apr 12 Mon Mar 16:00:00 GMT 2011

 

Now that the text above has been presented to you, the current time and date is clear. Now it is time to change it. To change the date and time you must enter the command below in the shown format:

sudo date 041216002011

 

After you have entered the code above into the “Terminal” (command prompt), you must hit the “Enter” key. After doing so your date and time will change to the date that you set above. If you are still confused about how to use the format above to insert your preferred date and time, refer to the highlighted section below:

sudo date 04 (Month) 12 (Day) 1600 (Time in 24hour) 2011 (Year)

 

All you must do is replace the text above with your month, date, time and year then hit “Enter”. Doing so will automatically replace your current date and time.

Congratulations! You have just changed your date and time settings on Ubuntu using the “Terminal”. Enjoy your newfound Ubuntu setting modification knowledge.

This tutorial is written for all Ubuntu users who are missing the privilege of Peer-2-Peer file sharing upon switching to Ubuntu. However, no need to fret, there is a way that you can return to your file sharing habits. Read below to find out how you can install and use P2P file sharing on your Ubuntu computer system.

The first step you must take towards installing a bittorrent client is to check whether or not you already have a bittorrent client installed on your computer. To do so you must open the “Terminal” (command prompt) and enter the text below into the command prompt text area:

whereis bittorrent

 

Once you have entered the text exactly as highlighted above, you will be provided with a text response in the command prompt window. If you are prompted with the text below or similar then you currently have bittorrent installed and you have no need to install a bittorrent client program:

bittorrent: usr/share/bittorrent

 

If the text aove does not appear in your command prompt then you must enter the command below directly into the command prompt text area:

sudo apt-get install bittorrent

 

Once you have entered the text above you will then be prompted with a simple “y/n” prompt, asking you whether or not you would like to install xxxxKb or packages, to which you must press the “Y” key on your keyboard and then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard to accept the download of the package.

 

Once you have accepted the download request of the package, you will then notice a large amount of text scrolling across your command prompt text area, which unless you are an advanced user, needs not to be worried about. After a short period of time (usually 5 to 60 seconds, depending on your computer and internet connection) the download will have completed and the packages will have installed. At this time you will be able to tell whether or not the download and installation of the software has completed by checking that your command prompt shows the text below:

root@ubuntu-machine: _   <- This underscore will be flashing (this is your cursor)

 

If your command prompt reads text similar to the text highlighted above, you may then close your “Terminal” window by clicking the close button, which will be marked with an “X”.

 

Your bittorrent client will now be installed and ready to fetch all of your favourite files! In order to begin downloading from the P2P networks all around the world, you must first decide on what type of files you would like to download. These files can be anything, such as; audio, videos, pictures, installation files, .iso disc image files, etc, etc. The list of files across the P2P networks around the world truly are endless. So it is high time that you utilized the P2P network and collected all the files you haven’t been able to find on websites!

 

Now that you have decided on the file or files that you would like to download, you must then head to a “Bittorrent Tracker” website. These websites will have a vast list of files known as “Torrents”. These files will have a “.torrent” extension. For example:

familyphotocollage.jpg

or

your-favourite-games-collection.rar

 

Note: Prior to visiting a torrent tracker site or downloading torrents or files via the P2P network, I highly recommend that you have an active antivirus software installed. I understand that Linux overall is much more immune to viruses in general as opposed to most other, more common operating systems, although I recommend “Clam” antivirus. It is one of the most commonly discussed antivirus solutions for the Linux environment, also I have tested it and executed a large number of viruses written for Linux against my computer system, I acquired the dummy virus pack on a torrent tracking website. I destroyed the dummy virus pack after I had finished my security testing. I suggest you do the same, as it may be illegal to hold these security testing marvels on your computer.

The files you are intending to download will determine where you are more likely to find the torrent file for downloading the files. I will give you a list of torrent tracking websites, which will be a helpful start in beginning downloading your files. I recommend that you start at a site such as Torrentpond. The Torrentpond website is an intricate layout of various links and advertisements, however there is no need to be daunted, as I am here to help you understand it.

 

The first thing you must do is veer your eyes to the left of the webpage. At the top-left corner of the webpage you will see a “Search” bar. In this bar you must enter the name of the file you wish to search for and then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard to initiate the search for your file. Torrentpond doesn’t only scan one website for a torrent file for the file you wish to download, but it scans many different torrent tracking websites, each in separate categories. From these categories you must navigate throughout the page in search for the perfect torrent to suit your needs.

 

Once you have found the torrent you wish to use to download your file, all you must do is click the link highlighted in blue and then when the “Save” dialogue window opens prompting you to enter a place of which it can save the file, you must choose a location, name your file and then click the “Save” button.

 

Now that you have saved your torrent file to a convenient location, you must then navigate to the directory that you saved it in and then double click the torrent file. Now assuming that you followed the above steps correctly, your bittorrent client should now open with a small dialogue box, which will show you all the files that are available to download using that one specific torrent. You must either deselect the files that you do not want and check those that you intend on downloading or you may just hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard, which will begin the download process.

 

A small bar will appear on your screen and it will have a percentage value written in the format shown below:

x.xx%      or      xx.xx%

 

Note: Whenever you use P2P file sharing, your files will upload as well as download, thus sharing your currently downloading files with the world as you download them. This may pose as a security risk if your computer is insecure. Also while the file is uploading, it can slow down your downloading, which in turn means that you must wait longer before you can use the file that you are downloading. It is also a problem if you have a limited monthly usage limit that counts uploads as well as downloads. Fortunately there is a way to limit the upload speed to almost nothing (1Kb/s). This can be done by double clicking the text on the torrent that you are downloading within the bittorrent client’s window and then adjusting the text box marked “Upload”, which should be “0” to “1” and then close the small dialogue window, which opened when you double clicked the text on your torrent, then leave the main bittorrent window open, if you wish to monitor the percentage of your download. Like so:

change 0 to 1 and then close the small dialogue window, without closing the main bittorrent window.

 

Once this bar is full, your download is complete! You will be able to find your downloaded files in your “Downloads” folder in your username’s directory. You must navigate to the directory, of which you have set your default downloads folder to, which like I said above should be “Downloads” or “Documents” and you will find the file that you have just downloaded.

Congratulations! You have just downloaded, installed, configured and used your P2P client on your Ubuntu computer system. Enjoy your newfound Ubuntu P2P knowledge.

This tutorial will show all Ubuntu users how they can use Ubuntu to play all their MP3 music files and many other common audio types. Read below to find out how you can install and enable many audio codecs in just a few steps.

Now be sure that you have a relatively new media player. In this tutorial I am going to use VLC media player as an example.

 

If you do not have VLC media player then enter the code below into your “Terminal” (command prompt) to install it to your Ubuntu computer:

sudo apt-get install vlc             Then hit “Enter” on your keyboard.

 

After you have entered the code highlighted above in your “Terminal”, you must then select “y” and then hit enter. This will begin the download and installation process of the VLC media player on your computer. Once this is complete you will once again have a blinking cursor next to your username.

 

Now that your VLC installation is complete it is time to install some codec packs. In order to install a massive variety of codecs enter the command in the list below depending on your current version of Ubuntu, which will install various packages in one line of code:

 

Ubuntu 10.04, 9.10 and 9.04 (of both the i386 variety and the amd64 variety)

sudo apt-get install libdvdread4            Then hit “Enter” on your keyboard.

Then enter the following into your command window:

sudo usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css.sh            Then hit “Enter” on your keyboard.

Once you have followed the above two steps you should restart your computer to ensure that your media codecs are fully installed and in a completely functional state, which will prevent potential lockups.

 

Below are the instructions to install all of these codecs onto some of the older Ubuntu distributions:

 

Ubuntu 8.10 (i386 and amd64

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3 gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly           Then hit your “Enter” key

Once you have followed the above steps I recommend that you restart your computer, in order to ensure that your codecs are fully installed and functional prior to opening your media files and opening yourself to the possibility of your media glitching, garbling or locking up.

 

Ubuntu 8.04 (i386 only)

sudo apt-get install libdvdread3                  Then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard.

Then enter the text below into your command window:

sudo usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh           Then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard.

Once you have entered the text highlighted above and your codecs have installed, I recommend that you restart your computer in order to ensure a fully installation of the codecs, as this will minimize the possibility of corrupt, semi-functional codecs on your system.

 

Ubuntu 8.04 (amd64 only)

sudo apt-get install build-essential debhelper fakeroot              Then hit your “Enter” key.

Then enter the text highlighted below into your command prompt window:

sudo usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/install-css.sh           Then hit the “Enter” key on your keyboard.

Once you have entered the text above and hit the “Enter” key, I recommend that you restart your computer, as doing so will ensure that you get a full installation of your codecs. If you do not restart your computer after installation then it is likely that your codec may not work in the way you expected it to, which will cause complications.

 

Now that you have configured your media codecs and restarted your computer, you must enter the command below into your “Terminal” (command prompt) in order to change the region settings on your DVD hardware in order to play the DVD region marked on the DVD of which you intend on playing:

regionset

Entering the above text will provide you with multiple choices on your region code. There are many different region codes, which vary depending on your country. These region settings are put in place to help stop the spread of pirated movies and maximize the income from movies released on DVDs. This code can be easily changed by entering the one-number code matching the disc. A list of region codes is below:

 

Area Code (Single Number Code) Region That The Code Applies To

1

Canada, U.S. and U.S. Territories.

2

Albania, Andorra, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canary Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, European Union, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (the Former Yugoslav Republic), Malta, Moldova, Principality of Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia,South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Kingdom (Channel Islands) Vatican City State, Yemen and Yugoslavia

3

Southeast Asia and East Asia ( also including Hong Kong)

4

Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America and the Caribbean

5

Former Soviet Union, Indian Subcontinent and Africa (also North Korea and Mongolia)

6

China

7

Reserved

8

Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.).

The above list was written based on the list at http://www.somucheasier.co.uk/dvd-formats.html

 

Now that you have installed and configured your particular VLC installation and you are ready to play your media you must copy an "MP3” file or another media file of your choice somewhere on your harddrive, your documents folder will do for now.

 

Once you have copied your choice of media file or inserted your favourite media CD or DVD, you may then navigate to it through your preferred file manager and then double click onto the DVD drive or the media file of your choice. If it does not start playing or begins playing in a media player other than VLC, then you may open VLC by navigating to it through your taskbar and then clicking the “File” button in the VLC window at the top left of the window and then clicking the “Open File” button and then selecting the individual media file that you wish to play. Alternatively, say you would like to play every media file from a specific directory, you may click the “File” menu again and then select “Open Directory” and then choose the directory that your media file is stored in.

Congratulations! You have just installed, configured and should now be using the VLC media player on your Ubuntu computer system. Enjoy your newfound Ubuntu media utilization knowledge.

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