Category: Xubuntu


This question has not yet appeared in my inbox, although since I have already written an explanation on the meaning of the term “Sniffer” it makes sense to write one about a tool commonly used in conjunction with a “Sniffer”. So here is an explanation on what a “Scanner” is and what it may be used for. Note I am referring to a “Network Scanner” not an optical scanner.

A “Scanner” is a shortened term for “Network Scanner”. The “Network Scanner” is a software program that can be used to passively scan for network broadcasting devices, such as a wireless access point (AP) that could potentially be exploited in order to gain unauthorized access into a system belonging to the network connected to this wireless access point, or perhaps authorized access assuming you have permission from the owner of the network or computer to perform a security audit.

 

By using the term “Passive Scan” I am referring to a scan in what is commonly known to security enthusiasts as a scan in “Monitor Mode”. This means that the wireless device will only capture data packets and broadcast beacons without sending and data packets. Thus making you much less likely to be discovered by the owner of the device or devices that you are collecting data packets from. I would also like to note that in most circumstances collecting wireless packets should be no more illegal than say peering into your neighbour’s lounge room through the front door that he left open. It is in principle no different. Just be sure that if you do choose to pursue the data packets of your surrounding access points that the owner of them is not a security freak or a person with a great lawyer, as this could result in them turning the tables on you and getting you in trouble.

 

Due to the haze between the terms “Sniffer” and “Scanner” personal opinions on each may vary. My preference in network sniffers would be Wireshark and my preference in “Scanner” would be Airodump-ng.

I hope that this has helped you understand the meaning of the term “Scanner” when referring to network security. Have fun testing your network from the outside, perhaps it is not as secure as you may have once thought.

This tutorial is designed to teach all computer users, of which are new to their Linux distribution. Read below to find out what the most commonly compatible wireless devices are and how you are to install them on your Linux-based computer with the aid of open-source driver projects.

The initial step you must take, just as you must in any other hardware installation on any type of computer system, is of course to physically connect the wireless device to your computer system, either via a PCI slot,assuming you are using a desktop or tower type computer system or a free add-on slot, assuming you are using a laptop type computer system. Also after connecting the hardware be sure to check that the system voltage has not dropped overall using your voltmeter, as strenuous load on the power supply may not be all that bad, overloading the power supply will cause hassle when trying to run your computer, most commonly random reboots and hardware failure will result under these circumstances.

 

The next step you must take is to determine the make and model of your wireless device, which can be done by reading the box that contained your wireless device at the time of purchase or you may consult a computer store or a computer savvy friend to determine the make and model of your wireless device. As it is not installed yet, thus checking for the make and model in the device list is futile.

 

Please note that this tutorial is referring to the “Chipset” in use on the wireless device, so not only the make and model of the card are being referred to here, but also more specifically the “Chipset”on board that device.

 

Below is a table of the commonly compatible wireless devices and where you are to find online hardware lists and driver installation packages for them. You may also note that below I have only listed the makes of the commonly compatible wireless devices, as listing all compatible models would take vast amounts of time, although don’t fret as the driver installation packages available online are usually compatible across most models of the same make:

 

Make Hardware List (Compatibility List) Driver Package
Atheros http://madwifi.org/wiki/Compatibility http://madwifi.org/wiki/UserDocs/GettingMadwifi
Ralink http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

http://rt2x00.serialmonkey.com/wiki/index.php/

Zydas (USB) http://zydas.rapla.net http://zd1211.ath.cx
Intel I have not found a hardware list for this specific make yet. http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net/downloads.php
http://sourceforge.net/projects/ipw2200-ap (For use in AP mode)
Conexant

http://securitystartshere.org/page-training-oswa-wnicsprism54.htm

http://prism54.org/newdrivers.html (SoftMAC)
http://prism54.org/fullmac.html (FullMAC)

 

Once you have determined the make, model and chipset aboard your wireless device, you must then visit the “Hardware List (Compatibility List) link beside the make of your wireless device, once you have navigated to the webpage, you must then search the page for your specific model, which can be done by using the “Filter”/”Find” tool, which is activated by using the key combination highlighted below:

Ctrl + F            Press and hold “Ctrl” and then tap “F” now release both keys.

 

Once you have used the above key combination correctly you will be presented with a narrow, empty text box, of which you must type the model of your card into (or at least the first few characters) and then hit the “Enter”/”Return” key to search the page for the entered text.

 

If the box suddenly highlights itself “Red” then your model is most likely not on the page, if this happened check that you entered the model name correctly and try again, if the box remains “Red” then try removing one character from the end of the text at a time until the box is no longer “Red”. If your box remains the default colour then you will notice that the text you entered into the box will now be highlighted (more than likely in a pale yellow) and if the highlighted text on the webpage matches the model of your wireless device then you can be sure that your wireless device should be compatible with Linux, thus allowing your wireless device to function natively under the Linux platform.

 

Now that you have determined that your wireless device is compatible with Linux, you must then return to the top of this page and click the link beside the make of your wireless device in the “Driver Package” column. Once you have clicked the link in the column that is most appropriate to you, you must then select the driver package that is most suited to your system. In most cases, you will select the driver marked with your Linux Kernel version number of the type of processor and operating system you are running (i.e. 32-bit, 64-bit, x86, etc).

 

Once you have downloaded the driver package (which will be a file format specific to your distribution i.e. Debian = .deb or .tar or .tar.gz, etc) most appropriate to your system and wireless device, you must then install it. Depending on your distribution and wireless device this procedure will vary and I strongly recommend that you consult a computer savvy friend, a computer expert or good old http://www.google.com for any information that you may need.

 

Once you have installed the driver package, you must then reboot your system and if you have an external wireless device switch (common on factory installed wireless devices) then switch it on. Now if you have configured it correctly by using my instructions above, then you may sit back and watch the glory reveal itself in the form of blinking data transfer lights and the swift readiness to occupy our air with its wealth of bits and bytes and make all of the fidelity of the wireless variety come to life invisibly. Fascinating isn’t it? If you do not experience such pleasure and your wireless device is in fact inactive or only partially active then I would personally recommend that you continue to search this website of mine for the answer that suits you, otherwise you may consult a computer expert.

Congratulations! You have just installed your wireless device on your Linux-based computer system. Enjoy your newfound Linux hardware configuration knowledge.

This tutorial is aimed at all regular users of Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu who commonly log in to a non-root account and perform administrative tasks via the “Terminal” (command prompt). Read below to find out how you can perform administrative tasks from a “Terminal” (command prompt) running on a regular account.

The first thing I must make you aware of before you proceed with this tutorial is that you must know the password of an administrative user on the computer you are logging into as a regular user in order for this method to work.

 

Okay, now we may proceed with the tutorial. The first step is of course to open the “Terminal”, which can be done by using the “Alt + F2” key combination as highlighted below:

Press and hold the “Alt” key and then press the “F2” key, now release both keys

 

Once you have performed the key combination as highlighted above, you will be presented with a small rectangular window at the top centre of your screen. This small window is the command launcher. In this window you will have a small text box, of which you must enter the text highlighted below into and then hit the “Enter” key:

terminal

 

Once you have entered the text above into the text box and hit the “Enter” key, your “Terminal” (command prompt) will appear.

 

Now that your “Terminal” is open you can perform your administrative tasks. But first you must decide which administrative task you wish to commit. In this example I will be moving a text file from my personal documents to the root of my HDD, which will require administrative privileges by default. This can be done by using the command you would normally use to move a file from your documents to the root of your HDD, although you will add the command “sudo” at the beginning like so:

sudo mv /home/dillon/Desktop/Documents/thisismyfile.txt /

 

By entering the command above into your “Terminal” window and then hitting the “Enter” key, you will be asked for the administrator password. You must type the password and then hit the “Enter” key, please note: the password will be invisible as you are typing it, for security reasons.

 

Now that you have entered the command with the “sudo” at the start and then entered your password, the “sudo” command will search a special file on your HDD in order to verify whether or not the particular user you entered the password for as well as your current user login is authorized to run the command of which you have entered. This file is the “sudoers” file, which is located at the directory highlighted below:

/etc/sudoers

 

You will notice that after using the “sudo” command, you will be able to run select applications as administrator for a certain amount of time. This is due to the “sudo” command, which will generate a special file that will allow you to use select commands for a set period of time. This file is, in a way a “ticket”, which allows you to enter the administrative functions of select features as often as you want until your “ticket” expires.

 

You may insert the “sudo” before and command you would like to run that requires administrative privileges wherever you see fit. The “sudo” command will work on any command that requires an administrator to run it, so next time you are stuck without an administrative login don’t fret because help is one word away.

 

Note: This tutorial will work on the Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Xubuntu platform.

Congratulations! You have just used “sudo” to emulate admin on your system. Enjoy your newfound Linux administration knowledge.

%d bloggers like this: